Voting is the act of casting votes for the purpose of deciding an issue. Voting is important in states that operate through democratic processes. Federal law guarantees each citizen the right to vote without discrimination based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The fundamental right to vote allows a citizen to equally participate in elections with other citizens in that jurisdiction. This right includes the right to cast an effective vote, have the vote counted, and a right to cast a ballot that is equal among voters.
However, voters cannot vote in any manner and the right to vote may be subject to qualification since the states have an interest in protecting the integrity of the election process. Therefore, different state legislatures have wide power to impose voter qualifcations and to regulate access through different means adopted by the state and federal constitutions.
In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Resident aliens can vote in some countries and in others, exceptions are made for citizens of countries with which they have close connections such as members of the Commonwealth Nations and the members of the European Union.
Pursuant to 42 USCS § 1972, no officer of the Army or Navy of the United States shall prescribe or fix, or attempt to prescribe or fix, by proclamation, order, or otherwise, the qualifications of voters in any State, or in any manner interfere with the freedom of any election in any State, or with the exercise of the free right of suffrage in any State.